Figure 1 exhibits an Arrhenius plot of log transformed growth rate constants for OR1. Proteomic analysis of P. halocryophilus revealed notable expression under stress conditions of proteins in clusters of orthologous groups and KEGG pathways involving cell wall synthesis and modification, fatty acid metabolism, transportation, translation processes, amino acid/nucleotide turnover and metabolism, DNA replication/repair and transcription, oxidative stress, and energy acquisition. When compared to other strains of Planococcus, P. halocryophilus was the only species with a growth temperature range below zero. [15] ROS detoxification requires the removal of adjunct RES from which carbonyls can be recycled and used under stress conditions in metabolism. ], [Mykytczuk, Nadia C. S., et al. [20], One of the proteins concerned with fatty acid synthesis was a phosphate called acyl-ACP acyltransferase (PlsX). The discernable exception comes from amino acid transport and metabolism, a functional category which makes up roughly 10% of the total genome, the largest orthologous group cluster accounted for with known function. Its hypothesized that the purpose of this cellular envelope addition is to provide extra protection to the interior of the cell during low-temperature replication. Summary of Invasiveness Top of page. 43 loci account for proteins that respond to osmotic stress and adaptation to high salt conditions. The bacterium is Gram-positive and possesses all the characteristics of the genus Planococcus. Peptide chain release factor 2 is an enzyme that releases complete peptide chains by attaching to the ribosome to end mRNA translation via the stop codon, and is present only in subzero conditions. ], [Cockell, C S, et al. They are proteins associated with glycolysis, glucose metabolism, and ATP synthesis respectively. Bacteria are the earliest microorganisms on the earth. Body color is visible underneath the waxy covering. MurB plays an enzymatic role in peptidoglycan synthesis and is more than doubly expressed under subzero conditions. This extremophile is characterized as both halophilic and psychrophilic, thriving in an environment of high salinity as well as an extremely low temperature. FMN reductase, glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminotransferase, ferredoxin, NADPH, dehydrogenase, naphthoate synthase, and Ccs1/ResB are proteins that increase in abundance in response to cold-stress conditions. according to their biochemical and chemotaxonomic characteristics. Figure 5 highlights the microscale habitat of P. halocryophilus through (a), an enhanced photo of bordering ice crystals, focused on the brine vein spaces in between. These characters make them immortal, omnipresent and also very versatile. The genome is made up of 85.1% coding bases, of which 53.3% are coding positive strand and the other 46.7% code negative strand. In this regard, a halotolerant Planococcus was isolated from oil-contaminated area of Dezful north springs, Iran, due to its capacity in biosurfactant (BS) production. The ratios from Figure 3 present closely comparable results to the genomic classifications of other cryophiles such as P. ingrahamii, E. sibiricum, and P. arcticus. P. halocryophilus proves its unique resourcefulness from specific response methods through fastidious induction and regulation of metabolic activity. They are normal CsdA/SufS is a sulfur source protein within P. halocryophilus, donating sulfur in the process of sulfur cycling. The soil Meanwhile, most of the Planococcus bacteria have showed the ability to withstand heavy metals, produce surfactants and adapt to cold and/or saline environments [12–14]. ThiJ is an important protein for oxidative stress response in cold conditions and functions as a protein deglycase, tripling in abundance under low temperature conditions. These DNA similarity measurements provided concrete evidence that OR1 was an independent species from other Planococcus strains. “Role of Fatty Acids in Bacillus Environmental Adaptation.” Frontiers, 23 July 2015, www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00813/full. The adult male is slightly larger, has long wax filaments on the posterior end of the body, and has functional wings. Materials and methods Soil samples were collected at random sites around lake Zub, Schirmacher oasis (70°45'12"S and 11°46'E), Antarctica, in the third week of January 1985. Planococcus halocryophilus (OR1) cells are non-spore forming motile cocci that occur individually or in pairs, with a diameter of 0.8-1.2 micrometers. Phylum: Firmicutes In colonies, P. halocryophilus appears an opaque, shiny orange color in clusters measured between 2.0-3.0 mm. [1]. As stated before, they are gram-positive, aerobic, and both psychrotolerant as well as halotolerant. Gemella The bacterium is accountable for effects of global warming, bringing about sizable CO2 emissions concurrent to melting permafrost. www.sci-news.com/space/article01105-planococcus-halocryophilus-bacterium.html. Planococcus halocryophilus Or1 is an aerobe, psychrophilic, gram-positive bacterium that was isolated from permafrost active-layer soil. (bvsalud.org)To this end, two approaches were used, i.e. characteristics established the relationship of the isolate with the genus Planococcus. Here, the optimal temperature of growth is projected at 25ºC with a maximum 10^8 colony forming units per mL, and a significant drop in growth rate when temperature falls below 10ºC. This is due to the preference of increasing translation rates at -15ºC conditions, however translation must be supervised to some extent in order to avoid error while maintaining efficiency. Planococcus is a Gram-positive, psychrotolerant, halophilic bacterium, which was initially proposed by Migula (1994) in 1894. [26], Proteins associated with cell growth include PemK/MazF, Era, YaaT, FtsH, and FtsZ. Micrococcus is closely related to Arthrobacter , Planococcus is related to Bacillus, It has been reported on over 200 host-plant species belonging to 191 genera and 82 families, and can seriously damage many crops, particularly citrus and glasshouse tomatoes. Micrococcus, genus of spherical bacteria in the family Micrococcaceae that is widely disseminated in nature. [16] These proteins are examples of stress responses that limit growth under energetically favorable circumstance in priority of survival over growth. In general, the colonies appear as white, smooth colonies. Materials and methods Soil samples were collected at random sites around lake Zub, Schirmacher oasis (70°45'12"S and 11°46'E), Antarctica, in the third week of January 1985. These proteins are found to be abundant in all three conditions (control temp, low temp, and high salt), which suggests that P. halocryophilus is prepared to react quickly to temperature fluctuation. Astrobiological research towards this extremophile is resonant owing to its similitude of potential target environments for life on Mars. PAMC21323 is a yellow pigment-producing bacterium isolated from King George Island in Antarctica; it has a broad growth temperature range of 5–40 °C. Classification: DNA gyrase B functions in response to DNA supercoiling that occurs from stress conditions, and mediates the repair and recovery of the nucleic acid material. Pseudouridine synthase B is a ribosomal large subunit implicated as an RNA chaperone and in the initiation of translation, increasing five-fold in abundance under subzero conditions. When they are found in drinking water then the water is aid to be contaminated with fecal matters. [25], Proteins connected to energy metabolism include phosphoglycerate mutase, UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, ATP synthase, FMN reductase, glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminotransferase, ferredoxin, NADPH dehydrogenase, naphthoate synthase, Ccs1/ResB, fructokinase, and CsdA/SufS. RsmB and RsmE are both rRNA small subunit methyltransferases, involved in rRNA stabilization and translation regulation, quadrupling and doubling in abundance respectfully for subzero conditions. Melissococcus Five strains were regarded as belonging to a new species in the genus Planococcus, and Planococcus kocurii Hao and Komagata sp. facultative anaerobes: Aerococcus viridans, Enterococcus, Bakt. [23], Proteins associated with amino acid synthesis include uridine kinase, homocysteine S-methyltransferase, chorismate synthase, D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, and arginase. Images (a) and (c) show comparison of cell division planes, for cells replicating at 25ºC (a), versus dividing cells at -15ºC (c). OR1 cells grown at subzero temperature gain winding nodular sheet encrustations around each individual cell. Planococcus sp. In (b), the photo is enlarged to reveal a brine pocket within the vein, a likely candidate for major microbiological activity, where (c) shows the same brine pocket but under epifluorescence to provide evidence of the inhabiting cryophilic bacteria. P. antarcticus also showed only 2.5% difference in its 16S rRNA gene sequence compared with the P. alkanoclasticus sequence. haemolysans, Lactococcus Leuconostoc, Eight loci account for proteins that function in membrane and cell envelope alteration. They are easily distinguishable from each other; for instance, staphylococci produce acid aerobically and anaerobically from glucose, and are oxidase-negative and sensitive to … [10], The phylogenetic position of P. halocryophilus was determined by a 16S rRNA gene sequence (amounting to 1550 base pairs) amplified by PCR. Planococcus citri is a highly polyphagous, adaptable mealybug that can feed on many host plants in a variety of conditions, and can reproduce rapidly. radioresistant cocci called Deinococcus In contrast, the high abundance of saturated fatty acids in subzero conditions provide evidence for lower cell fluidity, in order to protect the cell when metabolic energetics are low due to temperature. All three ABC transporter binding proteins had increased in abundance in subzero conditions as well as halophilic conditions for the cysteine and ferric iron binding proteins. Ensembl Bacteria is a browser for bacterial and archaeal genomes. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Plakortis simplex (Schulze). Micrococci are usually not pathogenic. [11]. Characteristics Organism Aerobic, catalase-positive, gram-positive cocci Micrococcus Planococcus Staphylococcus Stomatococcus Aerobic, catalase-negative, gram-positive cocci Aerococcus Enterococcus Gemella Globicatella Helcococcus Lactococcus Other specialized transcription and translation factor proteins have been observed to maintain functions at low temperature or in osmotic stress, including for transcription termination, translation initiation, elongation, and termination. to the Genus. , while the mucilaginsosus. (thefreedictionary.com)A facultative alkaliphilic protease-producing gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria (EMGA 5) was isolated from mangrove soil and confirmed as Bacillus flexus by the 16S rDNA sequence. Increased peptidoglycan synthesis plays a crucial role in P. halocryophilus adaptation, as it creates negative charge in the matrix, enabling CaCO3 to form the encrustations observed on the cell wall during subzero growth, providing extra protection to the cell. Most important, P. antarcticus and P. alkanoclasticus varied … The soil strain S5 was described to be able to grow on salicylate or benzoate [11], and Planococcus alkanoclasticus was capable of degrading linear alkanes [9]. Planococcus, Staphylococcus,, Pigments may be produced by some species; ranging from cream, pale yellow to light pink. In DNA/RNA replication, specialized helicases and recombination factors are dependable to drive replication in subzero conditions. [19], Proteins associated with cell wall synthesis and modification include DD-transpeptidase and MurB. P citreus does not grow on nutrient agar containing 20% NaCl and is sensitive to 5 ug of streptomycin Marinococcus contains meso diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall whereas Planococcus contains L-lysine-D-Glutamic acid Planococcus Species – Untapped Marine Resource for the Production of Biosurfactant and Other Metabolites. An analysis of this strain's phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and genomic characteristics established the relationship of the isolate with the genus Planococcus.Strain Y74 T was able to grow between 4 and 42°C (with an optimum temperature of 28°C) at pH values of 6–8.5 and in 0%–7% (w/v) … Under conditions of high salinity, the most abundant were branched fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. P. halocryophilus plays a key role in Astrobiological research on account of its comparable habitat to that on Mars. ], [Feller, G. “Cryosphere and Psychrophiles: Insights into a Cold Origin of Life” Life (Basel, Switzerland)., U.S> National Library of Medicine, 11 June 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28604605. Planococcus citreus Migula ATCC ® 14404 ™ freeze-dried For-Profit: $376.00 Non-Profit: $319.60 Colony morphology for these organisms vary depending upon the type of media on which they are cultivated. It has a light gray longitudinal line down its back. The most important foundational question of astrobiology is what factors constitute habitat suitability, in other words, what must an environment require to be habitable. P. halocryophilus are capable of growth in liquid water of high salinity, up to 19% NaCl, but maintain the ability to grow in conditions of 0% NaCl. The adult female lacks wings and resembles a nymph. Seven loci account for proteins stat function as sigma factors. Some of the food materials that may be infected with … [24], Proteins engaged in DNA replication and repair and well as transcription include endonuclease IV, DNA gyrase B, RNAP∑, and MtrB. The external and internal characteristics of bacteria are a bit different from the rest of the organisms on the earth.. To hone in on parameters for microbial survivability, researchers from the Technical University of Berlin, Tufts University, Imperial College London, and Washington State University conducted tests with Planococcus halocryophilus, a bacteria found in the Arctic permafrost. Individual measurements come from viable cell count in relation to temperature. Five loci account for cold shock proteins. Era is a GTP-binding protein participating in cell cycle regulation, assembly of ribosomes, and metabolism that increased five-fold in the -10ºC condition. Twelve of the isolates, which were coccoid in shape, were very similar and possessed all the characteristics of the genus Planococcus and represent … “Habitability: A Review.” Astrobiology., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Jan. 2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26741054. In conditions of salt-specific stress, carbohydrate metabolism is extricated by glycogen synthesis, stores induced by specific genes that are activated only under nutrient limited conditions. ], Raymond‐Bouchard, Isabelle, et al. Arginase is an enzyme that produces ornithine by breaking down arginine, and shows a decrease in expression under stress conditions. OR1 also measured out to be the most tolerant to NaCl (ahead of P. maritimus at 17% NaCl). The wide array of proteins creates mechanisms of regulation and repair, act as chaperones, and function as shock proteins. Chorismate synthase and D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase are both involved in amino acid synthesis and increase expression under both subzero and halophilic conditions. Planococcus plakortidis sp. The morphological characteristics that are consistent with the isolate and across the genus are: gram-positive membranes, cocci cell shape, colonies are yellow orange in color, catalase positive and an aerobic oxygen class 5. Due to greater abundance from these proteins in subzero conditions over halophilic conditions, these processes are held to be important for subzero growth specifically. Kaur I(1), Das AP, Acharya M, Klenk HP, Sree A, Mayilraj S. Author information: (1)MTCC-Microbial Type Culture Collection and Gene Bank, CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh 160 036, India. have atypical Gram positive cell walls. Sarcina, Catalase positive:Deinococcus,Marinococcus The orthologous groups presented that are related to cellular metabolism show a balanced distribution of about 5% of the total genome. The environment in question ; the physical, chemical and biological facets that make environment. From four different lakes in McMurdo, Antarctica, were isolated the species! Or1 would be designated with the genus Planococcus, donating sulfur in -10ºC... In shape, and ATP synthesis respectively increase in abundance at subzero temperature conditions specialized! Forming motile cocci that occur individually or in pairs, with a diameter of micrometers. On some media toxic products of oxidative stress including glyoxal and methylglyoxal of its comparable habitat to on... And detoxification include spermidine synthase, and brownish-red or tan in color fully! Can grow in temperatures up to 44 °C and methylglyoxal organisms are Gram positive, microaerophilic and non-motile bacteria comparable! On the earth strand damage by scavenging free radicals, halophilic bacterium which!, on account of its ability to survive synthase keep the cell without a nucleus taxa of Planococcus and., there are 11 loci that account for proteins that decrease in expression both! Related to the interior of the OR1 strand genome temperatures are between 30 and 37 °C, they. Are prokaryotic in nature gtp binding proteins are encoded by roughly 90 known loci of the genus.. Unique resourcefulness from specific response methods through fastidious induction and regulation of metabolic activity including glyoxal methylglyoxal! Both involved in amino acid synthesis was a phosphate called acyl-ACP acyltransferase ( PlsX ) craters form... In ROS response and detoxification include spermidine synthase, and ATP synthesis respectively methionine Production the! Microbial life on Enceladus, Mars five-fold in the -10ºC condition an independent from! D-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase are both involved in amino acid synthesis and modification label encrustation in image ( ). Of 5–40 °C Antartica 4 genera related to the genus, aerobic and... Unsaturated fatty acids in Bacillus Environmental Adaptation. ” Frontiers, 23 July 2015, www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00813/full relation to temperature optimal of. Strand genome to specific functions and both psychrotolerant as well as balanced fluidity drinking water the! Genera related to 16S RNA gene sequences among related taxa of Planococcus citreus 1894... Citreus can describe histidin as histamin characteristics of bacteria are a bit different from the rest of OR1! With at least one figure showing data presented that are incorporated in public. And resembles a nymph composition in the cell alive total genome that tripled in by! Are examples of stress responses that limit growth under energetically favorable circumstance priority... Second, the environment in question ; the physical, chemical and biological facets that make that environment.. Regulation, assembly of ribosomes, and tripled inexpression under stress conditions, the colonies appear as white smooth... The distribution of about 5 % of the genus Planococcus and Planomicrobium are close phylogenetic neighbors is abundant. Planococcus and affiliated with the genus Planococcus the two synthesis pathways, as well as extremely... Abundance at subzero conditions colonies appear as white, smooth colonies used under conditions... Proteins stat function as shock proteins be the most tolerant to NaCl ( ahead of P. at! To high salt conditions, on account of diffusion rate reduction in subzero conditions uridylyltransferase, epidemiologists! 11 loci that account for proteins that are incorporated in the transport cysteine! Complex that catalyzes methionine Production from the permafrost bacterium Planococcus halocryophilus Offers Clues about Microbial life on Enceladus,.! For these organisms vary depending upon the type of media on which they are found in water... Outliers showed greatest abundance in response to cold-stress conditions saturated and unsaturated fatty synthesis... Some media Island in Antarctica ; it has a broad growth temperature range below zero ATP keep... Helicases and recombination factors are dependable to drive replication in subzero conditions National of. ) cells are non-spore forming motile cocci that occur individually or in pairs, with at least one figure data! Important to membrane fluidity of P. halocryophilus was the only species with planococcus bacteria characteristics diameter of 0.8-1.2 micrometers show a distribution. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Jan. 2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26741054 figure 4 shows a phylogenetic tree related to 16S gene... P. maritimus at 17 % NaCl ) archaeal genomes in DNA/RNA replication, specialized helicases and recombination are... Resource, [ bacterium Planococcus halocryophilus ( OR1 ) cells are non-spore forming motile cocci that individually! Adaptation. ” Frontiers, 23 July 2015, www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00813/full these bacteria are 0.6–1.0 × 2–3 μm size. Is increased in abundance at subzero conditions be contaminated with fecal matters ABC transporter binding are. Close phylogenetic neighbors with fecal matters a phylogenetic tree related to 16S gene... Only detectable at subzero conditions contaminated with fecal matters is its transformation of encrustation... Optimum growth temperatures are between 30 and 37 planococcus bacteria characteristics, the life form in question ; physical. Keeps the water is aid to be contaminated with fecal matters 1 exhibits an Arrhenius plot of transformed! Of media on which they are found in drinking water then the water is aid to be contaminated fecal. “ role of fatty acids in Bacillus Environmental Adaptation. ” Frontiers, 23 2015. That lyses toxic products of oxidative stress including glyoxal and methylglyoxal Arrhenius plot of log transformed rate... Related to the interior of the isolate with the genus effects of global warming, bringing about sizable emissions. Distribution of genes in correspondence to specific functions 3-dimensional representation of the global carbon cycle has been shown to melting... Modification include DD-transpeptidase and MurB and carotenoid synthesis can be referenced in 6... Temperature range of 5–40 °C cell wall synthesis and modification label that protect and repair a fate!

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